School year 2022/23 is Cycle A Cycle A - Autumn Cycle A - Spring Cycle A - Summer Cycle B - Autumn Cycle B - Spring Cycle D - Summer Quick Jump links Year 1 Literacy Year 1 Numeracy Year 2 Literacy Year 2 Numeracy Year 1 Literacy English Curriculum Spelling Grammar English Curriculum Reading – word readingPupils should be taught to:apply phonic knowledge and skills as the route to decode wordsrespond speedily with the correct sound to graphemes (letters or groups of letters) for all 40+ phonemes, including, where applicable, alternative sounds for graphemesread accurately by blending sounds in unfamiliar words containing GPCs that have been taughtread common exception words, noting unusual correspondences between spelling and sound and where these occur in the wordread words containing taught GPCs and –s, –es, –ing, –ed, –er and –est endingsread other words of more than one syllable that contain taught GPCsread words with contractions [for example, I’m, I’ll, we’ll], and understand that the apostrophe represents the omitted letter(s)read books aloud, accurately, that are consistent with their developing phonic knowledge and that do not require them to use other strategies to work out wordsreread these books to build up their fluency and confidence in word reading Reading – comprehensionPupils should be taught to:develop pleasure in reading, motivation to read, vocabulary and understanding by:listening to and discussing a wide range of poems, stories and non-fiction at a level beyond that at which they can read independentlybeing encouraged to link what they read or hear to their own experiencesbecoming very familiar with key stories, fairy stories and traditional tales, retelling them and considering their particular characteristicsrecognising and joining in with predictable phraseslearning to appreciate rhymes and poems, and to recite some by heartdiscussing word meanings, linking new meanings to those already knownunderstand both the books they can already read accurately and fluently and those they listen to by:drawing on what they already know or on background information and vocabulary provided by the teacherchecking that the text makes sense to them as they read, and correcting inaccurate readingdiscussing the significance of the title and eventsmaking inferences on the basis of what is being said and donepredicting what might happen on the basis of what has been read so farparticipate in discussion about what is read to them, taking turns and listening to what others sayexplain clearly their understanding of what is read to them Writing – transcriptionSpelling – see English appendix 1Pupils should be taught to:spell:words containing each of the 40+ phonemes already taughtcommon exception wordsthe days of the weekname the letters of the alphabet:naming the letters of the alphabet in orderusing letter names to distinguish between alternative spellings of the same soundadd prefixes and suffixes:using the spelling rule for adding –s or –es as the plural marker for nouns and the third person singular marker for verbsusing the prefix un–using –ing, –ed, –er and –est where no change is needed in the spelling of root words [for example, helping, helped, helper, eating, quicker, quickest]apply simple spelling rules and guidance, as listed in English appendix 1write from memory simple sentences dictated by the teacher that include words using the GPCs and common exception words taught so far HandwritingPupils should be taught to:sit correctly at a table, holding a pencil comfortably and correctlybegin to form lower-case letters in the correct direction, starting and finishing in the right placeform capital lettersform digits 0-9understand which letters belong to which handwriting ‘families’ (ie letters that are formed in similar ways) and to practise these Writing – compositionPupils should be taught to:write sentences by:saying out loud what they are going to write aboutcomposing a sentence orally before writing itsequencing sentences to form short narrativesre-reading what they have written to check that it makes sensediscuss what they have written with the teacher or other pupilsread their writing aloud, clearly enough to be heard by their peers and the teacher Writing – vocabulary, grammar and punctuationPupils should be taught to:develop their understanding of the concepts set out in English appendix 2 by:leaving spaces between wordsjoining words and joining clauses using ‘and’beginning to punctuate sentences using a capital letter and a full stop, question mark or exclamation markusing a capital letter for names of people, places, the days of the week, and the personal pronoun ‘I’learning the grammar for year 1 in English appendix 2use the grammatical terminology in English English appendix 2 in discussing their writing Spelling Statutory requirements Rules and guidance (non-statutory)Example words (non-statutory)The sounds /f/, /l/,/s/, /z/ and /k/ spelt ff, ll, ss, zz and ckThe /f/, /l/, /s/, /z/ and /k/ sounds are usually spelt as ff, ll, ss, zz and ck if they come straight after a single vowel letter in short words. Exceptions: if, pal, us, bus, yes.off, well, miss, buzz, backThe /ŋ/ sound speltn before k bank, think, honk, sunkDivision of words into syllablesEach syllable is like a ‘beat’ in the spoken word. Words of more than one syllable often have an unstressed syllable in which the vowel sound is unclear.pocket, rabbit, carrot, thunder, sunset Statutory requirements Rules and guidance (non-statutory)Example words (non-statutory)-tchThe /tʃ/ sound is usually spelt as tch if it comes straight after a single vowel letter. Exceptions: rich, which, much,such.catch, fetch, kitchen, notch, hutchThe /v/ sound at the end of wordsEnglish words hardly ever end with the letter v, so if a word ends with a /v/ sound, the letter e usually needs to be added after the ‘v’.have, live, giveAdding s and es to words (plural of nouns and the third person singular of verbs)If the ending sounds like /s/ or /z/, it is spelt as –s. If the ending sounds like/ɪz/ and forms an extra syllable or ‘beat’in the word, it is spelt as –es.cats, dogs, spends, rocks, thanks, catchesAdding the endings–ing, –ed and –er to verbs where no change is needed to the root word–ing and –er always add an extra syllable to the word and –ed sometimes does.The past tense of some verbs may sound as if it ends in /ɪd/ (extra syllable), /d/ or /t/ (no extra syllable),but all these endings are spelt –ed.If the verb ends in two consonant letters (the same or different), the ending is simply added on.hunting, hunted, hunter, buzzing, buzzed, buzzer, jumping, jumped, jumperAdding –er and –est to adjectives where no change is needed to the root wordAs with verbs (see above), if the adjective ends in two consonant letters (the same or different), the ending is simply added on.grander, grandest, fresher, freshest, quicker, quickest Vowel digraphs and trigraphsSome may already be known, depending on the programmes used in Reception, but some will be new. Vowel digraphsand trigraphs Rules and guidance (non-statutory)Example words (non-statutory)ai, oiThe digraphs ai and oi are virtually never used at the end of English words.rain, wait, train, paid, afraid oil, join, coin, point, soilay, oyay and oy are used for those sounds at the end of words and at the end of syllables.day, play, say, way, stay boy, toy, enjoy, annoya–e made, came, same, take, safee–e these, theme, completei–e five, ride, like, time, sideo–e home, those, woke, hope, holeu–eBoth the /u:/ and /ju:/ (‘oo’ and ‘yoo’) sounds can be spelt as u–e.June, rule, rude, use, tube, tunear car, start, park, arm, gardenee see, tree, green, meet, weekea (/i:/) sea, dream, meat, each, read (present tense)ea (/ɛ/) head, bread, meant, instead, read (past tense)er (/ɜ:/) (stressed sound): her, term, verb, personer (/ə/) (unstressed schwa sound): better, under, summer, winter, sisterir girl, bird, shirt, first, thirdur turn, hurt, church, burst, Thursday Vowel digraphsand trigraphs Rules and guidance (non-statutory)Example words (non-statutory)oo (/u:/)Very few words end with the letters oo, although the few that do are often words that primary children in year 1 will encounter, for example, zoofood, pool, moon, zoo, soonoo (/ʊ/) book, took, foot, wood, goodoaThe digraph oa is very rare at the end of an English word.boat, coat, road, coach, goaloe toe, goesouThe only common English word ending in ou is you.out, about, mouth, around, soundow (/aʊ/) ow (/əʊ/) ueewBoth the /u:/ and /ju:/ (‘oo’ and ‘yoo’) sounds can be spelt as u–e, ue and ew. If words end in the/oo/ sound, ue and ew are more common spellings than oo.now, how, brown, down, town own, blow, snow, grow, show blue, clue, true, rescue, Tuesday new, few, grew, flew, drew, threwie (/aɪ/) lie, tie, pie, cried, tried, driedie (/i:/) chief, field, thiefigh high, night, light, bright, rightor for, short, born, horse, morningore more, score, before, wore, shoreaw saw, draw, yawn, crawlau author, August, dinosaur, astronautair air, fair, pair, hair, chairear dear, hear, beard, near, yearear (/ɛə/) bear, pear, wearare (/ɛə/) bare, dare, care, share, scared Statutory requirements Rules and guidance (non-statutory)Example words (non-statutory)Words ending –y (/i:/ or /ɪ/) very, happy, funny, party, familyNew consonant spellings ph and whThe /f/ sound is not usually spelt as ph in short everyday words (e.g. fat, fill, fun).dolphin, alphabet, phonics, elephant when, where, which, wheel, whileUsing k for the /k/ soundThe /k/ sound is spelt as k rather than as c before e, i and y.Kent, sketch, kit, skin, friskyAdding the prefix–unThe prefix un– is added to the beginning of a word without any change to the spelling of the root word.unhappy, undo, unload, unfair, unlockCompound wordsCompound words are two words joined together.Each part of the longer word is spelt as it would be if it were on its own.football, playground, farmyard, bedroom, blackberryCommon exception wordsPupils’ attention should be drawn to the grapheme- phoneme correspondences that do and do not fit in with what has been taught so far.the, a, do, to, today, of, said, says, are, were, was, is, his, has, I, you, your, they, be, he, me, she, we, no, go, so, by, my, here, there, where, love, come, some, one, once, ask, friend, school, put, push, pull, full, house, our – and/or others, according to the programme used Grammar The document below gives details of the specific grammar knowledge required in Year 1.Year 1 Grammar Year 1 Numeracy Written Calculations Written Calculations The document below gives details of the specific grammar knowledge required in Year 1.Calculation-policy Year 1Number- Number and PlacePupils should be taught to: count to and across 100, forwards and backwards, beginning with 0 or 1, or from any given number count, read and write numbers to 100 in numerals; count in multiples of twos, fives and tens given a number, identify one more and one less identify and represent numbers using objects and pictorial representations including the number line, and use the language of: equal to, more than, less than (fewer), most, least read and write numbers from 1 to 20 in numerals and words Number- Addition and SubtractionPupils should be taught to: read, write and interpret mathematical statements involving addition (+), subtraction (–) and equals (=) signs represent and use number bonds and related subtraction facts within 20 add and subtract one-digit and two-digit numbers to 20, including zero solve one-step problems that involve addition and subtraction, using concrete objects and pictorial representations, and missing number problems such as 7 = ?– 9. Number-Multiplication and DivisionPupils should be taught to: solve one-step problems involving multiplication and division, by calculating the answer using concrete objects, pictorial representations and arrays with the support of the teacher. Number- FractionsPupils should be taught to: recognise, find and name a half as one of two equal parts of an object, shape or quantity recognise, find and name a quarter as one of four equal parts of an object, shape or quantity. MeasurementPupils should be taught to: compare, describe and solve practical problems for: lengths and heights [for example, long/short, longer/shorter, tall/short, double/half] mass/weight [for example, heavy/light, heavier than, lighter than] capacity and volume [for example, full/empty, more than, less than, half, half full, quarter] time [for example, quicker, slower, earlier, later] measure and begin to record the following: lengths and heights mass/weight capacity and volume time (hours, minutes, seconds) recognise and know the value of different denominations of coins and notes sequence events in chronological order using language [for example, before and after, next, first, today, yesterday, tomorrow, morning, afternoon and evening] recognise and use language relating to dates, including days of the week, weeks, months and years tell the time to the hour and half past the hour and draw the hands on a clock face to show these times. Geometry- Property of ShapePupils should be taught to: recognise and name common 2-D and 3-D shapes, including: 2-D shapes [for example, rectangles (including squares), circles and triangles] 3-D shapes [for example, cuboids (including cubes), pyramids and spheres]. Geometry- Position and DirectionPupils should be taught to: describe position, direction and movement, including whole, half, quarter and three quarter turns. Year 2 Literacy English Curriculum Spelling Grammar English Curriculum Reading – word readingPupils should be taught to:continue to apply phonic knowledge and skills as the route to decode words until automatic decoding has become embedded and reading is fluentread accurately by blending the sounds in words that contain the graphemes taught so far, especially recognising alternative sounds for graphemesread accurately words of two or more syllables that contain the same graphemes as aboveread words containing common suffixesread further common exception words, noting unusual correspondences between spelling and sound and where these occur in the wordread most words quickly and accurately, without overt sounding and blending, when they have been frequently encounteredread aloud books closely matched to their improving phonic knowledge, sounding out unfamiliar words accurately, automatically and without undue hesitationreread these books to build up their fluency and confidence in word reading Reading – comprehensionPupils should be taught to:develop pleasure in reading, motivation to read, vocabulary and understanding by:listening to, discussing and expressing views about a wide range of contemporary and classic poetry, stories and non-fiction at a level beyond that at which they can read independentlydiscussing the sequence of events in books and how items of information are relatedbecoming increasingly familiar with and retelling a wider range of stories, fairy stories and traditional talesbeing introduced to non-fiction books that are structured in different waysrecognising simple recurring literary language in stories and poetrydiscussing and clarifying the meanings of words, linking new meanings to known vocabularydiscussing their favourite words and phrasescontinuing to build up a repertoire of poems learnt by heart, appreciating these and reciting some, with appropriate intonation to make the meaning clearunderstand both the books that they can already read accurately and fluently and those that they listen to by:drawing on what they already know or on background information and vocabulary provided by the teacherchecking that the text makes sense to them as they read, and correcting inaccurate readingmaking inferences on the basis of what is being said and doneanswering and asking questionspredicting what might happen on the basis of what has been read so farparticipate in discussion about books, poems and other works that are read to them and those that they can read for themselves, taking turns and listening to what others sayexplain and discuss their understanding of books, poems and other material, both those that they listen to and those that they read for themselves Writing – transcriptionSpelling – see English appendix 1Pupils should be taught to:spell by:segmenting spoken words into phonemes and representing these by graphemes, spelling many correctlylearning new ways of spelling phonemes for which 1 or more spellings are already known, and learn some words with each spelling, including a few common homophoneslearning to spell common exception wordslearning to spell more words with contracted formslearning the possessive apostrophe (singular) [for example, the girl’s book]distinguishing between homophones and near-homophonesadd suffixes to spell longer words including –ment, –ness, –ful, –less, –lyapply spelling rules and guidance, as listed in English appendix 1write from memory simple sentences dictated by the teacher that include words using the GPCs, common exception words and punctuation taught so far HandwritingPupils should be taught to:form lower-case letters of the correct size relative to one anotherstart using some of the diagonal and horizontal strokes needed to join letters and understand which letters, when adjacent to one another, are best left unjoinedwrite capital letters and digits of the correct size, orientation and relationship to one another and to lower-case lettersuse spacing between words that reflects the size of the letters Writing – compositionPupils should be taught to:develop positive attitudes towards and stamina for writing by:writing narratives about personal experiences and those of others (real and fictional)writing about real eventswriting poetrywriting for different purposesconsider what they are going to write before beginning by:planning or saying out loud what they are going to write aboutwriting down ideas and/or key words, including new vocabularyencapsulating what they want to say, sentence by sentencemake simple additions, revisions and corrections to their own writing by:evaluating their writing with the teacher and other pupilsrereading to check that their writing makes sense and that verbs to indicate time are used correctly and consistently, including verbs in the continuous formproofreading to check for errors in spelling, grammar and punctuation (for example, ends of sentences punctuated correctly)read aloud what they have written with appropriate intonation to make the meaning clear Writing – vocabulary, grammar and punctuationPupils should be taught to:develop their understanding of the concepts set out in English appendix 2 by:learning how to use both familiar and new punctuation correctly – see English appendix 2, including full stops, capital letters, exclamation marks, question marks, commas for lists and apostrophes for contracted forms and the possessive (singular)learn how to use:sentences with different forms: statement, question, exclamation, commandexpanded noun phrases to describe and specify [for example, the blue butterfly]the present and past tenses correctly and consistently, including the progressive formsubordination (using when, if, that, or because) and co-ordination (using or, and, or but)the grammar for year 2 in English appendix 2some features of written Standard Englishuse and understand the grammatical terminology in English appendix 2 in discussing their writing Spelling Statutory requirements Rules and guidance (non-statutory)Example words (non-statutory)The /dʒ/ sound spelt as ge and dge at the end of words, and sometimes spelt as g elsewhere in words before e, i and yThe letter j is never used for the /dʒ/ sound at the end of English words. At the end of a word, the /dʒ/ soundis spelt –dge straight after the /æ/,/ɛ/, /ɪ/, /ɒ/, /ʌ/ and /ʊ/ sounds (sometimes called ‘short’ vowels).After all other sounds, whether vowels or consonants, the /dʒ/ sound is spelt as –ge at the end of a word.In other positions in words, the /dʒ/ sound is often (but not always) spelt as g before e, i, and y. The /dʒ/ sound is always spelt as j before a, o and u. badge, edge, bridge, dodge, fudge age, huge, change, charge, bulge, village gem, giant, magic, giraffe, energy jacket, jar, jog, join, adjustThe /s/ sound spelt c before e, i and y race, ice, cell, city, fancyThe /n/ sound spelt kn and (less often) gn at the beginning of wordsThe ‘k’ and ‘g’ at the beginning of these words was sounded hundreds of years ago.knock, know, knee, gnat, gnawThe /r/ sound spelt wr at the beginning ofwordsThis spelling probably also reflects an old pronunciation.write, written, wrote, wrong, wrapThe /l/ or /əl/ sound spelt –le at the end of wordsThe –le spelling is the most common spelling for this sound at the end of words.table, apple, bottle, little, middle Statutory requirements Rules and guidance (non-statutory)Example words (non-statutory)The /l/ or /əl/ sound spelt –el at the end of wordsThe –el spelling is much less common than –le.The –el spelling is used after m, n, r, s, v, w and more often than not after s.camel, tunnel, squirrel, travel, towel, tinselThe /l/ or /əl/ sound spelt –al at the end of wordsNot many nouns end in –al, but many adjectives do.metal, pedal, capital, hospital, animalWords ending –ilThere are not many of these words.pencil, fossil, nostrilThe /aɪ/ sound spelt–y at the end of wordsThis is by far the most common spelling for this sound at the end of words.cry, fly, dry, try, reply, JulyAdding –es to nouns and verbs ending in–yThe y is changed to i before –es is added.flies, tries, replies, copies, babies, carriesAdding –ed, –ing, –er and –est to a root word ending in –y with a consonant before itThe y is changed to i before –ed, –er and –est are added, but not before – ing as this would result in ii. The only ordinary words with ii are skiing and taxiing.copied, copier, happier, happiest, cried, replied…but copying, crying, replyingAdding the endings – ing, –ed, –er, –est and –y to words ending in –e with a consonant before itThe –e at the end of the root word is dropped before –ing, –ed, –er,–est, –y or any other suffix beginning with a vowel letter is added.Exception: being.hiking, hiked, hiker, nicer, nicest, shinyAdding –ing, –ed,–er, –est and –y to words of one syllable ending in a single consonant letter after a single vowel letterThe last consonant letter of the root word is doubled to keep the /æ/, /ɛ/,/ɪ/, /ɒ/ and /ʌ/ sound (i.e. to keep thevowel ‘short’).Exception: The letter ‘x’ is never doubled: mixing, mixed, boxer, sixes.patting, patted, humming, hummed, dropping, dropped, sadder, saddest, fatter, fattest, runner, runnyThe /ɔ:/ sound spelt a before l and llThe /ɔ:/ sound (‘or’) is usually spelt as a before l and ll.all, ball, call, walk, talk, alwaysThe /ʌ/ sound spelt o other, mother, brother, nothing, Monday Statutory requirements Rules and guidance (non-statutory)Example words (non-statutory)The /i:/ sound spelt–eyThe plural of these words is formed by the addition of –s (donkeys, monkeys, etc.).key, donkey, monkey, chimney, valleyThe /ɒ/ sound spelt a after w and qua is the most common spelling for the /ɒ/ (‘hot’) sound after w and qu.want, watch, wander, quantity, squashThe /ɜ:/ sound spelt or after wThere are not many of these words.word, work, worm, world, worthThe /ɔ:/ sound spelt ar after wThere are not many of these words.war, warm, towardsThe /ʒ/ sound spelt s television, treasure, usualThe suffixes –ment,–ness, –ful , –less and –lyIf a suffix starts with a consonant letter, it is added straight on to most root words without any change to the last letter of those words.Exceptions:argumentroot words ending in –y with a consonant before it but only if the root word has more than one syllable.enjoyment, sadness, careful, playful, hopeless, plainness (plain + ness), badly merriment, happiness, plentiful, penniless, happilyContractionsIn contractions, the apostrophe shows where a letter or letters would be if the words were written in full (e.g. can’t – cannot).It’s means it is (e.g. It’s raining) or sometimes it has (e.g. It’s been raining), but it’s is never used for the possessive.can’t, didn’t, hasn’t, couldn’t, it’s, I’llThe possessive apostrophe (singular nouns) Megan’s, Ravi’s, the girl’s, the child’s, the man’sWords ending in –tion station, fiction, motion, national, section Statutory requirements Rules and guidance (non-statutory)Example words (non-statutory)Homophones and near-homophonesIt is important to know the difference in meaning between homophones.there/their/they’re, here/hear, quite/quiet, see/sea, bare/bear, one/won, sun/son, to/too/two, be/bee, blue/blew, night/knightCommon exception wordsSome words are exceptions in some accents but not in others – e.g. past, last, fast, path and bath are not exceptions in accents where the a in these words is pronounced /æ/, as in cat.Great, break and steak are the only common words where the /eɪ/ sound is spelt ea.door, floor, poor, because, find, kind, mind, behind, child, children*, wild, climb, most, only, both, old, cold, gold, hold, told, every, everybody, even, great, break, steak, pretty, beautiful, after, fast, last, past, father, class, grass, pass, plant, path, bath, hour, move, prove, improve, sure, sugar, eye, could, should, would, who, whole, any, many, clothes, busy, people, water, again, half, money, Mr, Mrs, parents, Christmas – and/or others according to programme used.Note: ‘children’ is not an exception to what has been taught so far but is included because of its relationship with ‘child’. Grammar The document below gives details of the specific grammar knowledge required in Year 1.Year 2 Grammar Year 2 Numeracy Written Calculations Written Calculations The document below gives details of the specific grammar knowledge required in Year 1.Calculation-policy Year 2Number- Number and PlacePupils should be taught to: count in steps of 2, 3, and 5 from 0, and in tens from any number, forward and backward recognise the place value of each digit in a two-digit number (tens, ones) identify, represent and estimate numbers using different representations, including the number line compare and order numbers from 0 up to 100; use <, > and = signs read and write numbers to at least 100 in numerals and in words use place value and number facts to solve problems. Number- Addition and SubtractionPupils should be taught to: solve problems with addition and subtraction: using concrete objects and pictorial representations, including those involving numbers, quantities and measures applying their increasing knowledge of mental and written methods recall and use addition and subtraction facts to 20 fluently, and derive and use related facts up to 100 add and subtract numbers using concrete objects, pictorial representations, and mentally, including: a two-digit number and ones a two-digit number and tens two two-digit numbers adding three one-digit numbers show that addition of two numbers can be done in any order (commutative) and subtraction of one number from another cannot recognise and use the inverse relationship between addition and subtraction and use this to check calculations and solve missing number problems. Number-Multiplication and DivisionPupils should be taught to: recall and use multiplication and division facts for the 2, 5 and 10 multiplication tables, including recognising odd and even numbers calculate mathematical statements for multiplication and division within the multiplication tables and write them using the multiplication (×), division (÷) and equals (=) signs show that multiplication of two numbers can be done in any order (commutative) and division of one number by another cannot solve problems involving multiplication and division, using materials, arrays, repeated addition, mental methods, and multiplication and division facts, including problems in contexts. Number- FractionsPupils should be taught to: recognise, find, name and write fractions 1/3, 1/4, 2/4 and 3/4 of a length, shape, set of objects or quantity write simple fractions for example, 1/2 of 6 = 3 and recognise the equivalence of 2/4 and 1/2. MeasurementPupils should be taught to: choose and use appropriate standard units to estimate and measure length/height in any direction (m/cm); mass (kg/g); temperature (°C); capacity (litres/ml) to the nearest appropriate unit, using rulers, scales, thermometers and measuring vessels compare and order lengths, mass, volume/capacity and record the results using >, < and = recognise and use symbols for pounds (£) and pence (p); combine amounts to make a particular value find different combinations of coins that equal the same amounts of money solve simple problems in a practical context involving addition and subtraction of money of the same unit, including giving change compare and sequence intervals of time tell and write the time to five minutes, including quarter past/to the hour and draw the hands on a clock face to show these times know the number of minutes in an hour and the number of hours in a day. Geometry- Property of ShapesPupils should be taught to: identify and describe the properties of 2-D shapes, including the number of sides and line symmetry in a vertical line identify and describe the properties of 3-D shapes, including the number of edges, vertices and faces identify 2-D shapes on the surface of 3-D shapes, [for example, a circle on a cylinder and a triangle on a pyramid] compare and sort common 2-D and 3-D shapes and everyday objects. Geometry- Position and DirectionPupils should be taught to: order and arrange combinations of mathematical objects in patterns and sequences use mathematical vocabulary to describe position, direction and movement, including movement in a straight line and distinguishing between rotation as a turn and in terms of right angles for quarter, half and three-quarter turns (clockwise and anticlockwise). StatisticsPupils should be taught to: interpret and construct simple pictograms, tally charts, block diagrams and simple tables ask and answer simple questions by counting the number of objects in each category and sorting the categories by quantity ask and answer questions about totalling and comparing categorical data.