School year 2022/23 is Cycle A
Reading – word reading
Pupils should be taught to:
- apply their growing knowledge of root words, prefixes and suffixes (etymology and morphology) as listed in – see English appendix 1 , both to read aloud and to understand the meaning of new words they meet
- read further exception words, noting the unusual correspondences between spelling and sound, and where these occur in the word
Reading – comprehension
Pupils should be taught to:
- develop positive attitudes to reading, and an understanding of what they read, by:
- listening to and discussing a wide range of fiction, poetry, plays, non-fiction and reference books or textbooks
- reading books that are structured in different ways and reading for a range of purposes
- using dictionaries to check the meaning of words that they have read
- increasing their familiarity with a wide range of books, including fairy stories, myths and legends, and retelling some of these orally
- identifying themes and conventions in a wide range of books
- preparing poems and play scripts to read aloud and to perform, showing understanding through intonation, tone, volume and action
- discussing words and phrases that capture the reader’s interest and imagination
- recognising some different forms of poetry [for example, free verse, narrative poetry]
- understand what they read, in books they can read independently, by:
- checking that the text makes sense to them, discussing their understanding, and explaining the meaning of words in context
- asking questions to improve their understanding of a text
- drawing inferences such as inferring characters’ feelings, thoughts and motives from their actions, and justifying inferences with evidence
- predicting what might happen from details stated and implied
- identifying main ideas drawn from more than 1 paragraph and summarising these
- identifying how language, structure, and presentation contribute to meaning
- retrieve and record information from non-fiction
- participate in discussion about both books that are read to them and those they can read for themselves, taking turns and listening to what others say
Writing – transcription
Spelling – see English appendix 1
Pupils should be taught to:
- use further prefixes and suffixes and understand how to add them – see English appendix 1
- spell further homophones
- spell words that are often misspelt – see English appendix 1
- place the possessive apostrophe accurately in words with regular plurals [for example, girls’, boys’] and in words with irregular plurals [for example, children’s]
- use the first 2 or 3 letters of a word to check its spelling in a dictionary
- write from memory simple sentences, dictated by the teacher, that include words and punctuation taught so far
Handwriting
Pupils should be taught to:
- use the diagonal and horizontal strokes that are needed to join letters and understand which letters, when adjacent to one another, are best left unjoined
- increase the legibility, consistency and quality of their handwriting, [for example, by ensuring that the downstrokes of letters are parallel and equidistant, and that lines of writing are spaced sufficiently so that the ascenders and descenders of letters do not touch]
Writing – composition
Pupils should be taught to:
- plan their writing by:
- discussing writing similar to that which they are planning to write in order to understand and learn from its structure, vocabulary and grammar
- discussing and recording ideas
- draft and write by:
- composing and rehearsing sentences orally (including dialogue), progressively building a varied and rich vocabulary and an increasing range of sentence structures English appendix 2
- organising paragraphs around a theme
- in narratives, creating settings, characters and plot
- in non-narrative material, using simple organisational devices [for example, headings and sub-headings]
- evaluate and edit by:
- assessing the effectiveness of their own and others’ writing and suggesting improvements
- proposing changes to grammar and vocabulary to improve consistency, including the accurate use of pronouns in sentences
- proofread for spelling and punctuation errors
- read their own writing aloud to a group or the whole class, using appropriate intonation and controlling the tone and volume so that the meaning is clear
Writing – vocabulary, grammar and punctuation
Pupils should be taught to:
- develop their understanding of the concepts set out in English appendix 2 by:
- extending the range of sentences with more than one clause by using a wider range of conjunctions, including: when, if, because, although
- using the present perfect form of verbs in contrast to the past tense
- choosing nouns or pronouns appropriately for clarity and cohesion and to avoid repetition
- using conjunctions, adverbs and prepositions to express time and cause
- using fronted adverbials
- learning the grammar for years 3 and 4 in
- indicate grammatical and other features by:
- using commas after fronted adverbials
- indicating possession by using the possessive apostrophe with plural nouns
- using and punctuating direct speech
- use and understand the grammatical terminology in English appendix 2 accurately and appropriately when discussing their writing and reading
accident(ally) actual(ly) address answer appear arrive believe bicycle breath breathe build busy/business calendar caught centre century certain circle complete consider continue decide describe different difficult disappear | early earth eight/eighth enough exercise experience experiment extreme famous favourite February forward(s) fruit grammar group guard guide heard heart height history imagine increase important interest island | knowledge learn length library material medicine mention minute natural naughty notice occasion(ally) often opposite ordinary particular peculiar perhaps popular position possess(ion) possible potatoes pressure probably promise | purpose quarter question recent regular reign remember sentence separate special straight strange strength suppose surprise therefore though/although thought through various weight woman/women |
Years 3 and 4 Statutory Requirements
Statutory requirements | Rules and guidance (non-statutory) | Example words (non-statutory) | |
Adding suffixes beginning with vowel letters to words of more than one syllable | If the last syllable of a word is stressed and ends with one consonant letter which has just one vowel letter before it, the final consonant letter is doubled before any ending beginning with a vowel letter is added. The consonant letter is not doubled if the syllable is unstressed. | forgetting, forgotten, beginning, beginner, prefer, preferred
gardening, gardener, limiting, limited, limitation | |
The /ɪ/ sound spelt y elsewhere than at the end of words | These words should be learnt as needed. | myth, gym, Egypt, pyramid, mystery | |
The /ʌ/ sound spelt ou | These words should be learnt as needed. | young, touch, double, trouble, country | |
More prefixes | Most prefixes are added to the beginning of root words without any changes in spelling, but see in– below. | ||
Like un–, the prefixes dis– and mis– have negative meanings. | dis–: disappoint, disagree, disobey mis–: misbehave, mislead, misspell (mis + spell) | ||
The prefix in– can mean both ‘not’ and ‘in’/‘into’. In the words given here it means ‘not’. | in–: inactive, incorrect |
Statutory requirements | Rules and guidance (non-statutory) | Example words (non-statutory) | |
Before a root word starting with l, in– becomes il. | illegal, illegible | ||
Before a root word starting with m or p, in– becomes im–. | immature, immortal, impossible, impatient, imperfect | ||
Before a root word starting with r, in– becomes ir–. | irregular, irrelevant, irresponsible | ||
re– means ‘again’ or ‘back’. | re–: redo, refresh, return, reappear, redecorate | ||
sub– means ‘under’. | sub–: subdivide, subheading, submarine, submerge | ||
inter– means ‘between’ or ‘among’. | inter–: interact, intercity, international, interrelated (inter + related) | ||
super– means ‘above’. | super–: supermarket, superman, superstar | ||
anti– means ‘against’. | anti–: antiseptic, anti- clockwise, antisocial | ||
auto– means ‘self’ or ‘own’. | auto–: autobiography, autograph | ||
The suffix –ation | The suffix –ation is added to verbs to form nouns. The rules already learnt still apply. | information, adoration, sensation, preparation, admiration | |
The suffix –ly | The suffix –ly is added to an adjective to form an adverb. The rules already learnt still apply. The suffix –ly starts with a consonant letter, so it is added straight on to most root words. | sadly, completely, usually (usual + ly), finally (final + ly), comically (comical + ly) |
Statutory requirements | Rules and guidance (non-statutory) | Example words (non-statutory) | |
Exceptions: (1) If the root word ends in –y with a consonant letter before it, the y is changed to i, but only if the root word has more than one syllable. | happily, angrily | ||
(2) If the root word ends with –le, the –le is changed to –ly. | gently, simply, humbly, nobly | ||
(3) If the root word ends with –ic, –ally is added rather than just –ly, except in the word publicly. | basically, frantically, dramatically | ||
(4) The words truly, duly, wholly. | |||
Words with endings sounding like /ʒə/ or /tʃə/ | The ending sounding like /ʒə/ is always spelt –sure. The ending sounding like /tʃə/ is often spelt –ture, but check that the word is not a root word ending in (t)ch with an er ending – e.g. teacher, catcher, richer, stretcher. | measure, treasure, pleasure, enclosure creature, furniture, picture, nature, adventure | |
Endings which sound like /ʒən/ | If the ending sounds like /ʒən/, it is spelt as –sion. | division, invasion, confusion, decision, collision, television | |
The suffix –ous | Sometimes the root word is obvious and the usual rules apply for adding suffixes beginning with vowel letters. Sometimes there is no obvious root word. –our is changed to –or before –ous is added. A final ‘e’ of the root word must be kept if the /dʒ/ sound of ‘g’ is to be kept. If there is an /i:/ sound before the –ous ending, it is usually spelt as i, but a few words have e. | poisonous, dangerous, mountainous, famous, various tremendous, enormous, jealous humorous, glamorous, vigorous courageous, outrageous
serious, obvious, curious hideous, spontaneous, courteous |
Statutory requirements | Rules and guidance (non-statutory) | Example words (non-statutory) | |
Endings which sound like /ʃən/, spelt –tion, –sion, –ssion, –cian | Strictly speaking, the suffixes are – ion and –ian. Clues about whether to put t, s, ss or c before these suffixes often come from the last letter or letters of the root word. –tion is the most common spelling. It is used if the root word ends in t or te. –ssion is used if the root word ends in ss or –mit.
–sion is used if the root word ends in d or se. Exceptions: attend – attention, intend – intention. –cian is used if the root word ends in c or cs. |
invention, injection, action, hesitation, completion expression, discussion, confession, permission, admission expansion, extension, comprehension, tension
musician, electrician, magician, politician, mathematician | |
Words with the /k/ sound spelt ch (Greek in origin) | scheme, chorus, chemist, echo, character | ||
Words with the /ʃ/ sound spelt ch (mostly French in origin) | chef, chalet, machine, brochure | ||
Words ending with the /g/ sound spelt – gue and the /k/ sound spelt –que (French in origin) | league, tongue, antique, unique | ||
Words with the /s/ sound spelt sc (Latin in origin) | In the Latin words from which these words come, the Romans probably pronounced the c and the k as two sounds rather than one – /s/ /k/. | science, scene, discipline, fascinate, crescent | |
Words with the /eɪ/ sound spelt ei, eigh, or ey | vein, weigh, eight, neighbour, they, obey |
Statutory requirements | Rules and guidance (non-statutory) | Example words (non-statutory) | |
Possessive apostrophe with plural words | The apostrophe is placed after the plural form of the word; –s is not added if the plural already ends in –s, but is added if the plural does not end in –s (i.e. is an irregular plural – e.g. children’s). | girls’, boys’, babies’, children’s, men’s, mice’s (Note: singular proper nouns ending in an s use the ’s suffix e.g. Cyprus’s population) | |
Homophones and near-homophones | accept/except, affect/effect, ball/bawl, berry/bury, brake/break, fair/fare, grate/great, groan/grown, here/hear, heel/heal/he’ll, knot/not, mail/male, main/mane, meat/meet, medal/meddle, missed/mist, peace/piece, plain/plane, rain/rein/reign, scene/seen, weather/whether, whose/who’s |
The two documents below give details of the specific grammar knowledge required in each year group.
Year 3 Grammar |
Year 4 Grammar |
The links below outline our written calculations policy
Number and Place value
Pupils should be taught to:
count from 0 in multiples of 4, 8, 50 and 100; find 10 or 100 more or less than a given number
recognise the place value of each digit in a three-digit number (hundreds, tens, ones)
compare and order numbers up to 1000
identify, represent and estimate numbers using different representations
read and write numbers up to 1000 in numerals and in words
solve number problems and practical problems involving these ideas.
Number- Addition and Subtraction
Pupils should be taught to:
add and subtract numbers mentally, including:
a three-digit number and ones
a three-digit number and tens
a three-digit number and hundreds
add and subtract numbers with up to three digits, using formal written methods of columnar addition and subtraction
estimate the answer to a calculation and use inverse operations to check answers
solve problems, including missing number problems, using number facts, place value, and more complex addition and subtraction.
Number- Multiplication and division
Pupils should be taught to:
recall and use multiplication and division facts for the 3, 4 and 8 multiplication tables
write and calculate mathematical statements for multiplication and division using the multiplication tables that they know, including for two-digit numbers times one-digit numbers, using mental and progressing to formal written methods
solve problems, including missing number problems, involving multiplication and division, including positive integer scaling problems and correspondence problems in which n objects are connected to m objects.
Number- Fractions
Pupils should be taught to: count up and down in tenths;
recognise that tenths arise from dividing an object into 10 equal parts and in dividing one-digit numbers or quantities by 10
recognise, find and write fractions of a discrete set of objects: unit fractions and non unit fractions with small denominators
recognise and use fractions as numbers: unit fractions and non-unit fractions with small denominators
recognise and show, using diagrams, equivalent fractions with small denominators
add and subtract fractions with the same denominator within one whole [for example, 7/ 5 + 7 /1 = 7 /6 ]
compare and order unit fractions, and fractions with the same denominators
solve problems that involve all of the above.
Measurement
Pupils should be taught to:
measure, compare, add and subtract: lengths (m/cm/mm); mass (kg/g); volume/capacity (l/ml)
measure the perimeter of simple 2-D shapes
add and subtract amounts of money to give change, using both £ and p in practical contexts
tell and write the time from an analogue clock, including using Roman numerals from I to XII, and 12-hour and 24-hour clocks
estimate and read time with increasing accuracy to the nearest minute; record and compare time in terms of seconds, minutes and hours; use vocabulary such as o’clock, a.m./p.m., morning, afternoon, noon and midnight
know the number of seconds in a minute and the number of days in each month, year and leap year
compare durations of events [for example to calculate the time taken by particular events or tasks].
Geometry- Properties of Shape
Pupils should be taught to:
draw 2-D shapes and make 3-D shapes using modelling materials; recognise 3-D shapes in different orientations and describe them
recognise angles as a property of shape or a description of a turn
identify right angles, recognise that two right angles make a half-turn, three make three quarters of a turn and four a complete turn; identify whether angles are greater than or less than a right angle
identify horizontal and vertical lines and pairs of perpendicular and parallel lines.
Statistics
Pupils should be taught to:
interpret and present data using bar charts, pictograms and tables
solve one-step and two-step questions [for example, ‘How many more?’ and ‘How many fewer?’] using information presented in scaled bar charts and pictograms and tables.
Year 4
Number- Number and place value
Pupils should be taught to
count in multiples of 6, 7, 9, 25 and 1000
find 1000 more or less than a given number
count backwards through zero to include negative numbers
recognise the place value of each digit in a four-digit number (thousands, hundreds, tens, and ones)
order and compare numbers beyond 1000
identify, represent and estimate numbers using different representations
round any number to the nearest 10, 100 or 1000
solve number and practical problems that involve all of the above and with increasingly large positive numbers
read Roman numerals to 100 (I to C) and know that over time, the numeral system changed to include the concept of zero and place value.
Number- Addition and Subtraction
Pupils should be taught to:
add and subtract numbers with up to 4 digits using the formal written methods of columnar addition and subtraction where appropriate
estimate and use inverse operations to check answers to a calculation
solve addition and subtraction two-step problems in contexts, deciding which operations and methods to use and why.
Number- Multiplication and Division
Pupils should be taught to:
recall multiplication and division facts for multiplication tables up to 12 × 12
use place value, known and derived facts to multiply and divide mentally, including: multiplying by 0 and 1; dividing by 1; multiplying together three numbers
recognise and use factor pairs and commutativity in mental calculations
multiply two-digit and three-digit numbers by a one-digit number using formal written layout
solve problems involving multiplying and adding, including using the distributive law to multiply two digit numbers by one digit, integer scaling problems and harder correspondence problems such as n objects are connected to m objects.
Number- Fractions (including decimals)
Pupils should be taught to:
recognise and show, using diagrams, families of common equivalent fractions
count up and down in hundredths; recognise that hundredths arise when dividing an object by one hundred and dividing tenths by ten.
solve problems involving increasingly harder fractions to calculate quantities, and fractions to divide quantities, including non-unit fractions where the answer is a whole number
add and subtract fractions with the same denominator
recognise and write decimal equivalents of any number of tenths or hundredths
recognise and write decimal equivalents to 1/2, 1/4, 3/4
find the effect of dividing a one- or two-digit number by 10 and 100, identifying the value of the digits in the answer as ones, tenths and hundredths
round decimals with one decimal place to the nearest whole number
compare numbers with the same number of decimal places up to two decimal places
solve simple measure and money problems involving fractions and decimals to two decimal places.
Measurement
Pupils should be taught to:
Convert between different units of measure [for example, kilometre to metre; hour to minute]
measure and calculate the perimeter of a rectilinear figure (including squares) in centimetres and metres
find the area of rectilinear shapes by counting squares
estimate, compare and calculate different measures, including money in pounds and pence
read, write and convert time between analogue and digital 12- and 24-hour clocks
solve problems involving converting from hours to minutes; minutes to seconds; years to months; weeks to days.
Geometry- Property of Shape
Pupils should be taught to:
compare and classify geometric shapes, including quadrilaterals and triangles, based on their properties and sizes
identify acute and obtuse angles and compare and order angles up to two right angles by size
identify lines of symmetry in 2-D shapes presented in different orientations
complete a simple symmetric figure with respect to a specific line of symmetry.
Geometry- Position and Direction
Pupils should be taught to:
describe positions on a 2-D grid as coordinates in the first quadrant
describe movements between positions as translations of a given unit to the left/right and up/down
plot specified points and draw sides to complete a given polygon.
Statistics
Pupils should be taught to:
interpret and present discrete and continuous data using appropriate graphical methods, including bar charts and time graphs.
solve comparison, sum and difference problems using information presented in bar charts, pictograms, tables and other graphs.