## School year 2024/25 is Cycle A

**Reading – word reading**

Pupils should be taught to:

- apply their growing knowledge of root words, prefixes and suffixes (morphology and etymology), as listed in English appendix 1, both to read aloud and to understand the meaning of new words that they meet

**Reading – comprehension**

Pupils should be taught to:

- maintain positive attitudes to reading and an understanding of what they read by:
- continuing to read and discuss an increasingly wide range of fiction, poetry, plays, non-fiction and reference books or textbooks
- reading books that are structured in different ways and reading for a range of purposes
- increasing their familiarity with a wide range of books, including myths, legends and traditional stories, modern fiction, fiction from our literary heritage, and books from other cultures and traditions
- recommending books that they have read to their peers, giving reasons for their choices
- identifying and discussing themes and conventions in and across a wide range of writing
- making comparisons within and across books
- learning a wider range of poetry by heart
- preparing poems and plays to read aloud and to perform, showing understanding through intonation, tone and volume so that the meaning is clear to an audience

- understand what they read by:
- checking that the book makes sense to them, discussing their understanding and exploring the meaning of words in context
- asking questions to improve their understanding
- drawing inferences such as inferring characters’ feelings, thoughts and motives from their actions, and justifying inferences with evidence
- predicting what might happen from details stated and implied
- summarising the main ideas drawn from more than 1 paragraph, identifying key details that support the main ideas
- identifying how language, structure and presentation contribute to meaning

- discuss and evaluate how authors use language, including figurative language, considering the impact on the reader
- distinguish between statements of fact and opinion
- retrieve, record and present information from non-fiction
- participate in discussions about books that are read to them and those they can read for themselves, building on their own and others’ ideas and challenging views courteously
- explain and discuss their understanding of what they have read, including through formal presentations and debates, maintaining a focus on the topic and using notes where necessary
- provide reasoned justifications for their views

### Writing – transcription

#### Spelling – see English appendix 1

Pupils should be taught to:

- use further prefixes and suffixes and understand the guidance for adding them
- spell some words with ‘silent’ letters [for example, knight, psalm, solemn]
- continue to distinguish between homophones and other words which are often confused
- use knowledge of morphology and etymology in spelling and understand that the spelling of some words needs to be learnt specifically, as listed in English appendix 1
- use dictionaries to check the spelling and meaning of words
- use the first 3 or 4 letters of a word to check spelling, meaning or both of these in a dictionary
- use a thesaurus

#### Handwriting and presentation

Pupils should be taught to:

- write legibly, fluently and with increasing speed by:
- choosing which shape of a letter to use when given choices and deciding whether or not to join specific letters
- choosing the writing implement that is best suited for a task

**Writing – composition**

Pupils should be taught to:

- plan their writing by:
- identifying the audience for and purpose of the writing, selecting the appropriate form and using other similar writing as models for their own
- noting and developing initial ideas, drawing on reading and research where necessary
- in writing narratives, considering how authors have developed characters and settings in what pupils have read, listened to or seen performed

- draft and write by:
- selecting appropriate grammar and vocabulary, understanding how such choices can change and enhance meaning
- in narratives, describing settings, characters and atmosphere and integrating dialogue to convey character and advance the action
- précising longer passages
- using a wide range of devices to build cohesion within and across paragraphs
- using further organisational and presentational devices to structure text and to guide the reader [for example, headings, bullet points, underlining]

- evaluate and edit by:
- assessing the effectiveness of their own and others’ writing
- proposing changes to vocabulary, grammar and punctuation to enhance effects and clarify meaning
- ensuring the consistent and correct use of tense throughout a piece of writing
- ensuring correct subject and verb agreement when using singular and plural, distinguishing between the language of speech and writing and choosing the appropriate register

- proofread for spelling and punctuation errors
- perform their own compositions, using appropriate intonation, volume, and movement so that meaning is clear

**Writing – vocabulary, grammar and punctuation**

Pupils should be taught to:

- develop their understanding of the concepts set out in English appendix 2 by:
- recognising vocabulary and structures that are appropriate for formal speech and writing, including subjunctive forms
- using passive verbs to affect the presentation of information in a sentence
- using the perfect form of verbs to mark relationships of time and cause
- using expanded noun phrases to convey complicated information concisely
- using modal verbs or adverbs to indicate degrees of possibility
- using relative clauses beginning with who, which, where, when, whose, that or with an implied (ie omitted) relative pronoun
- learning the grammar for years 5 and 6 in English appendix 2

- indicate grammatical and other features by:
- using commas to clarify meaning or avoid ambiguity in writing
- using hyphens to avoid ambiguity
- using brackets, dashes or commas to indicate parenthesis
- using semicolons, colons or dashes to mark boundaries between independent clauses
- using a colon to introduce a list
- punctuating bullet points consistently

- use and understand the grammatical terminology in English appendix 2 accurately and appropriately in discussing their writing and reading

Year 5 & 6 Spellings

accommodate accompany according achieve aggressive amateur ancient apparent appreciate attached available average awkward bargain bruise category cemetery committee communicate community | competition conscience* conscious* controversy convenience correspond criticise (critic + ise) curiosity definite desperate determined develop dictionary disastrous embarrass environment equip (–ped, –ment) especially exaggerate excellent | existence explanation familiar foreign forty frequently government guarantee harass hindrance identity immediate(ly) individual interfere interrupt language leisure lightning marvellous mischievous | muscle necessary neighbour nuisance occupy occur opportunity parliament persuade physical prejudice privilege profession programme pronunciation queue recognise recommend relevant restaurant | rhyme rhythm sacrifice secretary shoulder signature sincere(ly) soldier stomach sufficient suggest symbol system temperature thorough twelfth variety vegetable vehicle yacht |

#### Statutory requirements

#### Rules and guidance (non‑statutory)

#### Example words (non‑statutory)

Endings which sound like /ʃəs/ spelt –cious or –tious

Not many common words end like this.

If the root word ends in

**–ce**, the /ʃ/ sound is usually spelt as**c**– e.g.*vice – vicious*,*grace – gracious*,*space – spacious*,*malice – malicious.***Exception**:*anxious*.vicious, precious, conscious, delicious, malicious, suspicious

ambitious, cautious, fictitious, infectious, nutritious

Endings which sound like /ʃəl/

**–cial**is common after a vowel letter and**–tial**after a consonant letter, but there are some exceptions.**Exceptions**: initial, financial, commercial, provincial (the spelling of the last three is clearly related to*finance*,*commerce*and*province*).official, special, artificial, partial, confidential, essential

Words ending in –ant,

–ance/–ancy,

–ent,

–ence/–encyUse

**–ant**and**–ance/–ancy**if there is a related word with a /æ/ or /eɪ/ sound in the right position; –**ation**endings are often a clue.

Use

**–ent**and**–ence/–ency**after soft**c**(/s/ sound), soft**g**(/dʒ/ sound) and**qu**, or if there is a related word with a clear /ɛ/ sound in the right position.There are many words, however, where the above guidance does not help. These words just have to be learnt.

observant, observance, (observ

__a__tion), expectant (expect__a__tion), hesitant, hesitancy (hesit__a__tion), tolerant, tolerance (toler__a__tion), substance (subst__a__ntial)innocent, innocence, decent, decency, frequent, frequency, confident, confidence (confidential)

assistant, assistance, obedient, obedience, independent, independence

#### Statutory requirements

#### Rules and guidance (non‑statutory)

#### Example words (non‑statutory)

Words ending in –able and

–ibleWords ending in –ably and

–iblyThe

**–able/–ably**endings are far more common than the**–ible/–ibly**endings.As with

**–ant**and**–ance/–ancy**, the**–able**ending is used if there is a related word ending in**–ation**.

If the

**–able**ending is added to a word ending in**–ce**or**–ge**, the**e**after the**c**or**g**must be kept as those letters would otherwise have their ‘hard’ sounds (as in*cap*and*gap*) before the**a**of the**–able**ending.The

**–able**ending is usually but not always used if a complete root word can be heard before it, even if there is no related word ending in**–ation**. The first five examples opposite are obvious; in*reliable*, the complete word*rely*is heard, but the**y**changes to**i**in accordance with the rule.The

**–ible**ending is common if a complete root word can’t be heard before it but it also sometimes occurs when a complete word*can*be heard (e.g.*sensible*).adorable/adorably (adoration),

applicable/applicably (application), considerable/considerably (consideration), tolerable/tolerably (toleration)

changeable, noticeable, forcible, legible

dependable, comfortable, understandable, reasonable, enjoyable, reliable

possible/possibly, horrible/horribly, terrible/terribly, visible/visibly, incredible/incredibly, sensible/sensibly

Adding suffixes beginning with vowel letters to words ending in –fer

The

**r**is doubled if the**–fer**is still stressed when the ending is added.

The

**r**is not doubled if the**–fer**is no longer stressed.referring, referred, referral, preferring, preferred, transferring, transferred

reference, referee, preference, transference

Use of the hyphen

Hyphens can be used to join a prefix to a root word, especially if the prefix ends in a vowel letter and the root word also begins with one.

co-ordinate, re-enter,

co-operate, co-own#### Statutory requirements

#### Rules and guidance (non‑statutory)

#### Example words (non‑statutory)

Words with the /i:/ sound spelt ei after c

The ‘

**i**before**e**except after**c**’ rule applies to words where the sound spelt by**ei**is /i:/.**Exceptions**:*protein*,*caffeine*,*seize*(and*either*and*neither*if pronounced with an initial /i:/ sound)*.*deceive, conceive, receive, perceive, ceiling

Words containing the letter-string ough

**ough**is one of the trickiest spellings in English – it can be used to spell a number of different sounds.ought, bought, thought, nought, brought, fought

rough, tough, enough

cough

though, although, dough

through

thorough, borough

plough, bough

Words with ‘silent’ letters (i.e. letters whose presence cannot be predicted from the pronunciation of the word)

Some letters which are no longer sounded used to be sounded hundreds of years ago: e.g. in

*knight*, there was a /k/ sound before the /n/, and the**gh**used to represent the sound that ‘ch’ now represents in the Scottish word*loch.*doubt, island, lamb, solemn, thistle, knight

#### Statutory requirements

#### Rules and guidance (non‑statutory)

#### Example words (non‑statutory)

Homophones and other words that are often confused

In the pairs of words opposite, nouns end

**–ce**and verbs end**–se**.*Advice*and*advise*provide a useful clue as the word*advise*(verb) is pronounced with a /z/ sound – which could not be spelt**c**.__More examples:__aisle: a gangway between seats (in a church, train, plane).

isle: an island.aloud: out loud.

allowed: permitted.affect: usually a verb (e.g.

*The weather may affect our plans*).

effect: usually a noun (e.g.*It may have an effect on our plans*). If a verb, it means ‘bring about’ (e.g.*He will effect changes in the running of the business*).altar: a table-like piece of furniture in a church.

alter: to change.ascent: the act of ascending (going up).

assent: to agree/agreement (verb and noun).bridal: to do with a bride at a wedding.

bridle: reins etc. for controlling a horse.cereal: made from grain (e.g. breakfast cereal).

serial: adjective from the noun*series*– a succession of things one after the other.compliment: to make nice remarks about someone (verb) or the remark that is made (noun).

complement: related to the word*complete*– to make something complete or more complete (e.g.*her scarf complemented her outfit*).advice/advise

device/devise

licence/license

practice/practise

prophecy/prophesy

farther: further

father: a male parentguessed: past tense of the verb

*guess*

guest: visitorheard: past tense of the verb

*hear*

herd: a group of animalsled: past tense of the verb

*lead*

lead: present tense of that verb, or else the metal which is very heavy (*as heavy as lead*)morning: before noon

mourning: grieving for someone who has diedpast: noun or adjective referring to a previous time (e.g.

*In the past*) or preposition or adverb showing place (e.g.*he walked past me*)

passed: past tense of the verb ‘pass’ (e.g.*I passed him in the road*)precede: go in front of or before

proceed: go on#### Statutory requirements

#### Rules and guidance (non‑statutory)

#### Example words (non‑statutory)

Homophones and other words that are often confused (continued)

descent: the act of descending (going down).

dissent: to disagree/disagreement (verb and noun).desert: as a noun – a barren place (stress on first syllable); as a verb – to abandon (stress on second syllable)

dessert: (stress on second syllable) a sweet course after the main course of a meal.draft: noun – a first attempt at writing something; verb – to make the first attempt; also, to draw in someone (e.g.

*to draft in extra help*)

draught: a current of air.principal: adjective – most important (e.g.

*principal ballerina*) noun – important person (e.g.*principal of a college*)

principle: basic truth or beliefprofit: money that is made in selling things

prophet: someone who foretells the futurestationary: not moving

stationery: paper, envelopes etc.steal: take something that does not belong to you

steel: metalwary: cautious

weary: tiredwho’s: contraction of

*who is*or*who has*

whose: belonging to someone (e.g.*Whose jacket is that?*)

The two documents below give details of the specific grammar knowledge required in each year group.

Year 5 Grammar |

Year 6 Grammar |

The links below outline our written calculations policy:

**Number- Number and Place Value**

Pupils should be taught to:

read, write, order and compare numbers to at least 1 000 000 and determine the value of each digit

count forwards or backwards in steps of powers of 10 for any given number up to 1 000 000

interpret negative numbers in context, count forwards and backwards with positive and negative whole numbers, including through zero

round any number up to 1 000 000 to the nearest 10, 100, 1000, 10 000 and 100 000

solve number problems and practical problems that involve all of the above

read Roman numerals to 1000 (M) and recognise years written in Roman numerals.

**Number- Addition and Subtraction**

Pupils should be taught to:

add and subtract whole numbers with more than 4 digits, including using formal written methods (columnar addition and subtraction)

add and subtract numbers mentally with increasingly large numbers

use rounding to check answers to calculations and determine, in the context of a problem, levels of accuracy

solve addition and subtraction multi-step problems in contexts, deciding which operations and methods to use and why.

**Number- Multiplication and Division**

Pupils should be taught to:

identify multiples and factors, including finding all factor pairs of a number, and common factors of two numbers

know and use the vocabulary of prime numbers, prime factors and composite (nonprime) numbers

establish whether a number up to 100 is prime and recall prime numbers up to 19

multiply numbers up to 4 digits by a one- or two-digit number using a formal written method, including long multiplication for two-digit numbers

multiply and divide numbers mentally drawing upon known facts

divide numbers up to 4 digits by a one-digit number using the formal written method of short division and interpret remainders appropriately for the context

multiply and divide whole numbers and those involving decimals by 10, 100 and 1000 recognise and use square numbers and cube numbers, and the notation for squared ( 2 ) and cubed (3 )

solve problems involving multiplication and division including using their knowledge of factors and multiples, squares and cubes

solve problems involving addition, subtraction, multiplication and division and a combination of these, including understanding the meaning of the equals sign

solve problems involving multiplication and division, including scaling by simple fractions and problems involving simple rates.

**Number- Fractions (including decimals and percentages)**

Pupils should be taught to:

compare and order fractions whose denominators are all multiples of the same number

identify, name and write equivalent fractions of a given fraction, represented visually, including tenths and hundredths

recognise mixed numbers and improper fractions and convert from one form to the other and write mathematical statements > 1 as a mixed number (for example, 2/5,+4/5 =6/5 = 1 1/5)

add and subtract fractions with the same denominator and denominators that are multiples of the same number

multiply proper fractions and mixed numbers by whole numbers, supported by materials and diagrams read and write decimal numbers as fractions [for example, 0.71 = 71/100 ]

recognise and use thousandths and relate them to tenths, hundredths and decimal equivalents

round decimals with two decimal places to the nearest whole number and to one decimal place

read, write, order and compare numbers with up to three decimal places

solve problems involving number up to three decimal places

recognise the per cent symbol (%) and understand that per cent relates to ‘number of parts per hundred’, and write percentages as a fraction with denominator 100, and as a decimal

solve problems which require knowing percentage and decimal equivalents of 1/2, 1/4, 1/5, 2/5 and 4/5 and those fractions with a denominator of a multiple of 10 or 25.

**Measurement**

Pupils should be taught to:

convert between different units of metric measure (for example, kilometre and metre; centimetre and metre; centimetre and millimetre; gram and kilogram; litre and millilitre)

understand and use approximate equivalences between metric units and common imperial units such as inches, pounds and pints

measure and calculate the perimeter of composite rectilinear shapes in centimetres and metres

calculate and compare the area of rectangles (including squares), and including using standard units, square centimetres (cm2 ) and square metres (m2 ) and estimate the area of irregular shapes

estimate volume [for example, using 1 cm3 blocks to build cuboids (including cubes)] and capacity [for example, using water]

solve problems involving converting between units of time

use all four operations to solve problems involving measure [for example, length, mass, volume, money] using decimal notation, including scaling.

**Geometry- Property of Shape**

Pupils should be taught to:

identify 3-D shapes, including cubes and other cuboids, from 2-D representations

know angles are measured in degrees: estimate and compare acute, obtuse and reflex angles

draw given angles, and measure them in degrees (o )

identify:

angles at a point and one whole turn (total 360 degrees )

angles at a point on a straight line and 1/2 a turn (total 180 degrees )

other multiples of 90 degrees

use the properties of rectangles to deduce related facts and find missing lengths and angles

distinguish between regular and irregular polygons based on reasoning about equal sides and angles.

**Geometry- Position and Direction**

Pupils should be taught to:

identify, describe and represent the position of a shape following a reflection or translation, using the appropriate language, and know that the shape has not changed.

__Statistics__

Pupils should be taught to:

solve comparison, sum and difference problems using information presented in a line graph complete, read and interpret information in tables, including timetables.

Year 6

**Number- Number and Place value**

Pupils should be taught to:

- read, write, order and compare numbers up to 10 000 000 and determine the value of each digit
- round any whole number to a required degree of accuracy
- use negative numbers in context, and calculate intervals across zero
- solve number and practical problems that involve all of the above.

**Number- Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication & Division**

Pupils should be taught to:

- multiply multi-digit numbers up to 4 digits by a two-digit whole number using the formal written method of long multiplication
- divide numbers up to 4 digits by a two-digit whole number using the formal written method of long division, and interpret remainders as whole number remainders, fractions, or by rounding, as appropriate for the context
- divide numbers up to 4 digits by a two-digit number using the formal written method of short division where appropriate, interpreting remainders according to the context
- perform mental calculations, including with mixed operations and large numbers
- identify common factors, common multiples and prime numbers
- use their knowledge of the order of operations to carry out calculations involving the four operations
- solve addition and subtraction multi-step problems in contexts, deciding which operations and methods to use and why
- solve problems involving addition, subtraction, multiplication and division
- use estimation to check answers to calculations and determine, in the context of a problem, an appropriate degree of accuracy.

**Number- Fractions**

Pupils should be taught to:

- use common factors to simplify fractions; use common multiples to express fractions in the same denomination
- compare and order fractions, including fractions > 1
- add and subtract fractions with different denominators and mixed numbers, using the concept of equivalent fractions
- multiply simple pairs of proper fractions, writing the answer in its simplest form
- divide proper fractions by whole numbers
- associate a fraction with division and calculate decimal fraction equivalents [for example, 0.375] for a simple fraction
- identify the value of each digit in numbers given to three decimal places and multiply and divide numbers by 10, 100 and 1000 giving answers up to three decimal places

- multiply one-digit numbers with up to two decimal places by whole numbers
- use written division methods in cases where the answer has up to two decimal places
- solve problems which require answers to be rounded to specified degrees of accuracy
- recall and use equivalences between simple fractions, decimals and percentages, including in different contexts.

**Ratio and Proportion **

Pupils should be taught to:

- solve problems involving the relative sizes of two quantities where missing values can be found by using integer multiplication and division facts
- solve problems involving the calculation of percentages [for example, of measures, and such as 15% of 360] and the use of percentages for comparison
- solve problems involving similar shapes where the scale factor is known or can be found
- solve problems involving unequal sharing and grouping using knowledge of fractions and multiples.

**Algebra**

Pupils should be taught to:

- use simple formulae
- generate and describe linear number sequences
- express missing number problems algebraically
- find pairs of numbers that satisfy an equation with two unknowns
- enumerate possibilities of combinations of two variables.

**Measurement **

Pupils should be taught to:

- solve problems involving the calculation and conversion of units of measure, using decimal notation up to three decimal places where appropriate
- use, read, write and convert between standard units, converting measurements of length, mass, volume and time from a smaller unit of measure to a larger unit, and vice versa, using decimal notation to up to three decimal places
- convert between miles and kilometres
- recognise that shapes with the same areas can have different perimeters and vice versa
- recognise when it is possible to use formulae for area and volume of shapes
- calculate the area of parallelograms and triangles

calculate, estimate and compare volume of cubes and cuboids using standard units, including cubic centimetres (cm^{3}) and cubic metres (m^{3}), and extending to other units [for example, mm^{3} and km^{3}].

**Geometry – Property of Shape**

Pupils should be taught to:

- draw 2-D shapes using given dimensions and angles
- recognise, describe and build simple 3-D shapes, including making nets
- compare and classify geometric shapes based on their properties and sizes and find unknown angles in any triangles, quadrilaterals, and regular polygons
- illustrate and name parts of circles, including radius, diameter and circumference and know that the diameter is twice the radius
- recognise angles where they meet at a point, are on a straight line, or are vertically opposite, and find missing angles.

**Geometry – Position & Direction**

Pupils should be taught to:

- describe positions on the full coordinate grid (all four quadrants)
- draw and translate simple shapes on the coordinate plane, and reflect them in the axes.

**Statistics **

Pupils should be taught to:

- interpret and construct pie charts and line graphs and use these to solve problems
- calculate and interpret the mean as an average.